Thursday, October 17, 2019

A Critcal Analysis of W. James Work on Varieties of Religious Essay

A Critcal Analysis of W. James Work on Varieties of Religious Experiences - Essay Example James defines religious experiences as feelings and acts of men that are dependent on what is considered to be divine. His method of studying religious experiences is based on the definition. He relies on four forms of experiences (Totor2u, 2009). The first form explains that experiences are unique to an individual and can only be explained by the person who goes through them. The second form gives an insight to the truth while the third one is short lived. Finally, the last experience is supernatural in nature, and it takes over the human body (Totor2u, 2009). His study on varieties of religious experiences addresses the usefulness of religion in human experiences. Given the fact that he does not dismiss the important role played by science in people’s lives, he tries to create a science of religion with the aim of authenticating religion. For James, it is through varieties that unscientific phenomena can be addressed (Pomerleau, 2002). According to his explanation, science cannot be sure whether religious phenomena are genuine or fraudulent. As such, means of dealing with such discrepancies must be developed. However, he agrees that religious accounts may not always be reliable because people tend to profile their experiences around that which they consider most significant (Cho, 1996). James notes that there is a gap between scientific explanation of phenomena and religious reasons that is hard to understand. The level from which situations can be explained through philosophy is different from religious understanding. He acquires evidence from people believe in supernatural forces to control events. The occurrence of unexplainable events is enough evidence to prove that these forces are real. Since it is what an individual believes in, it is perceived to be the truth (Boston, 2000). The point at which things happen without explanation takes the form

Interest Rates Swa[s Require Markets to be Inefficient Essay

Interest Rates Swa[s Require Markets to be Inefficient - Essay Example Currency exchange tailors international exchange transactions. Interest rates are characteristic of risks that result from the various key constituents of the foreign exchange market. One of these constituents is the interest rate swaps. Foreign exchange and interest rate operations provide opportunities for hedging in the foreign exchange market. Interest rate swaps in this context can be considered to be unique financing arrangements that allow corporations to significantly cut on their credit costs while improving their control on risks that accrue from interest rates and exposure to foreign exchange transactions. Market for currencies has considerably grown across the entire globe, and so has the interest rate swaps total outstanding amounts in the world (Lowenstein, 2000, pg. 148). The contributing currencies to this fast growth include but not limited to the US dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen and British Pound. Cash flow exchanges in an interest rate swap are undertaken by two parti es, who are bound to the interest rate swap agreement. Both parties have high expectations of benefiting from the interest rate swap. Where only one currency is involved, the resultant swap is called an interest rate swap. On the other hand, where multiple currencies are involved, a currency swap prevails. Corporations engage interest rate swaps in their operations for the purpose of achieving well defined goals. Interest rate swaps are said to be fully operational and beneficial in inefficient markets. There are certain components of the markets without which realization of swaps is rendered void. First, there must be two parties bound to the interest rate swap agreement. Second, the transactions are undertaken in the context of foreign exchange, where interest rates play a fundamental role in unifying the various currencies. Argument of whether or not interest rate swaps require markets to be inefficient can be evaluated based on the aiding tools of this foreign market constituent . Credit and debt evaluations in the interest rate swaps market can be used to define effectiveness of markets based on interest rate swaps. Quality Spread Differential is an integral component of foreign exchange markets, which is specifically designed for interest rate swaps. Efficient markets consider that debt instruments carry default risk premiums (De Jong, 2008, pg. 168). In these markets, risk premiums associated with interest rate swaps are mispriced, which is an implication of Quality Spread Differential. In an efficient market, it is expected that swap markets would be alleviated in the long run. However, this is not the case observed around the world. Now and then explosions have characterized the interest rate swap markets. Over time, instead of the markets disappearing, they have increased their operations and the effect there in have taken a maximum notion. In this regard, the entire market cannot be considered to be efficient. Inefficiency in these markets has increa sing interest rate swaps more and more. An efficient market considers facing out swap markets through arbitraging activities. This has not been realized, and it is still far from it because arbitraging has taken centre stage in the foreign market. Interest rates are not stable over time due to the disturbances caused by cyclic business movements to the economy. As a result, arbitrage opportunities emerge from interest rate discrepancies, and all economic components seek to exploit these

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

A Critcal Analysis of W. James Work on Varieties of Religious Essay

A Critcal Analysis of W. James Work on Varieties of Religious Experiences - Essay Example James defines religious experiences as feelings and acts of men that are dependent on what is considered to be divine. His method of studying religious experiences is based on the definition. He relies on four forms of experiences (Totor2u, 2009). The first form explains that experiences are unique to an individual and can only be explained by the person who goes through them. The second form gives an insight to the truth while the third one is short lived. Finally, the last experience is supernatural in nature, and it takes over the human body (Totor2u, 2009). His study on varieties of religious experiences addresses the usefulness of religion in human experiences. Given the fact that he does not dismiss the important role played by science in people’s lives, he tries to create a science of religion with the aim of authenticating religion. For James, it is through varieties that unscientific phenomena can be addressed (Pomerleau, 2002). According to his explanation, science cannot be sure whether religious phenomena are genuine or fraudulent. As such, means of dealing with such discrepancies must be developed. However, he agrees that religious accounts may not always be reliable because people tend to profile their experiences around that which they consider most significant (Cho, 1996). James notes that there is a gap between scientific explanation of phenomena and religious reasons that is hard to understand. The level from which situations can be explained through philosophy is different from religious understanding. He acquires evidence from people believe in supernatural forces to control events. The occurrence of unexplainable events is enough evidence to prove that these forces are real. Since it is what an individual believes in, it is perceived to be the truth (Boston, 2000). The point at which things happen without explanation takes the form

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Discuss the role of ideology in American-Russian relations between Essay - 1

Discuss the role of ideology in American-Russian relations between 1881 and 1920 - Essay Example The Americans viewed this act as exploratory, especially to their interests. The United States responded in a manner that was interpreted as interference by many players. This is the case when some countries in Asia and parts of Europe engaged in political revolutions as a way of solving some of their political problems. A variety of actors led to different ideologies concerning the American-Russian conflicts. Persons who ideologically believed that their differences formed the building blocks for cold war were orthodox, post-revisionist or revisionist.2 According to the orthodox view, the ideologies perpetuated by the Soviets were solely to blame for the initiation of cold war. These were specifically the Stalin and Lenin paranoia. In their view, the post revisionists felt that all these claims were entirely misconceptions and not true. Nonetheless, the Revisionist, better known as the ‘New Left’ held the view that the root cause of cold war was the United States’ hatred of communism.3 An additional important role arising from ideology informed the views of the U.S on the foreign revolutions. Initially, several countries where revolutions were taking place leaned towards communism. This made the US perceive such actions as instigated by Russia. Apparently, Russia had spread its influence to the Latin America, Austria-Hungary, Germany and France.4 Additionally, the Americans were not at peace because the Russians were emulating their actions by embracing similar strategies. These cycles of patterns that included the radical revolutions disillusioned the United Sates. The ideology also played a role in increasing fears in the United States over radicalism during the 1870s. The US felt that the urban working classes were increasingly becoming radicalized based on rapid industrialization. Other sources of fear were the coming into power of socialist and populist parties and unions across the globe.5 Ideology also pitted communism against capitalism in

Monday, October 14, 2019

Family communication | The Glass Castle

Family communication | The Glass Castle   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In The Glass Castle Jeanette tells us about the story of her life as she had lived it. She and her siblings had lived a life that she describes as having a lot of stressors. Her story has memoir in which she proves to the reader that living with bad parents and poverty do not really determine that the kids will lead a miserable future just as their parents. In this book, Walls reveals her life as difficult during her bringing up but yet love existed within the family. In this paper, we are therefore going to look at those stressors that the family went through;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanette sees her mother coming out of a dumpster with some lagged clothes tied around her neck. Her mother lucks a home to live in and this lives her with no choice but to look for any place that she can lay her head and also find something that can fill her stomach. It is very sad for Jeanette to see her mother this way as it would feel for anyone to watch their mothers go through this type of embarrassments.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Back in her childhood life, Jeanette suffers some serious burns as she boils hotdogs and her dress catches fire from the stove she is using. This lives her to spend many days in a local hospital near her home area in Arizona. Her parents prove to be so irresponsible as they dont take as much care as it would be imagined even by the hospital staff. The rumor goes throughout the hospital but Jeanette does not discuss this issue with the parents.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Her father takes the risk of grabbing and sneaking his little daughter out of the hospital escaping all the bills that he was intended to pay for the hospital to release the daughter. This happens even before she heals completely. The escape lives the family with no choice but running away from their hometown for they would highly deal with the low. They have to travel long distance and through hot deserts. They later settle in several towns in which the father is unable to pay house rent and this makes them keep on vacating.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The father becomes a drunkard and cannot hold onto his job despite his intelligence and talent on mechanical background. This makes the families life a living hell full of poverty and problems that never come to an end. His promise to his children to build a good house for the family fails as he cannot raise the amount to put up such a house. The fathers behavior and failure lives the children helpless and end up begging their mother to work and bring food to the table.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Luckily, the mother holds a degree in teaching but cannot get herself a job for she is lazy and the children have to drag her out of bed. This behavior has severally made her loose her job despite the fact that her residential area lucks qualified teachers. She later secures a job but her salary does not fully help the family. The father demands for her paycheck and spends the money on his drink and his own benefits.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This miserable state keeps on taking place for a long time living the children to go on sleeping on uncomfortable hard boxes and watching their parents fight in daily bases. The childrens bellies rumble every time due to hanger. They feed on anything that would fill their bellies and not for the sake of having a balanced diet meal like in other families. For this case, the mother has to teach them how to take rotten food down their throat while they hold the noses.The family went through these stressors and it affects their relationship since the kids see the father as irresponsible and harsh as they fear him. It also affects the husband-wife relationship since the mother has to fight her husband daily. The communication is on its negative side for the mother does not hold any ability to fight for her right to manage the salary she earns. The children also suffer silently as they have to spend their nights on hard boxes but cannot communicate to the fa ther and express their grievances.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Despite all poverty and stressors that they experience, the family has a genuine and strong love towards each other. They remain loyal and the familys father Rex is very encouraging, tender and wise when handling his children and wife whenever he is sober. As Jeanette gives the reader her memoir, she explains her life so well to ensure that she gives the real story that has experienced in her growing up.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanette and her siblings grow in the worst conditions that no one can ever deserve or think of but it does not change their feelings towards their parents. They continue loving them without realizing how cruel they have been until when they grow up and mature (Jeannette, p134). Jeanette spends her teenage life in the west side of Virginia where the father is forced to retreat to their home area after experiencing a miserable life in Arizona.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Here, the life of this family does not get better but continues to hit its worst points as they live under a roof that leaks. Rex tries to mend the roof but it does not do them any good either. In fact, they also have to face challenges as they have nowhere to dispose their rubbish and waste. The family is forced to put up with a smelly condition as they dispose the wastes in small holes that they dig.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Food also continues to be another problem for they cannot afford to buy any and they almost go without it. Jean is forced to go to high school and dig leftovers from the garbage as her father continues to drink irresponsibly as usual. As their lives get worse and miserable, Jeanettes mother ends up doing the most awful things one can ever imagine. Jeanette and her siblings find a ring made of diamond and decide to sell it so that they could buy food. The mother does not agree with this idea since she wants to maintain her dignity. This action lives the family in the some state of lacking food and starving.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Jeanette or her siblings go out playing with other kids, they are mocked and addressed as kids who are health epidemic for they live in garbage places. Her family and their neighbors always fight for they keep on picking on their perverted situation. Hours spent in school are also not favoring to her either; she has to steal other kids food or hide in the bathroom at lunch hours while the others take their food. After lunch, she comes out and collects the leftovers and eats them for she has no choice over it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  She later gets tired of this life and decides to go to New York where she gets further studies. She lives her family with the aim of getting knowledge that will secure her a good job and enable her to take care of her family. While she is in New York, her father gets ill and is admitted to the hospital suffering from Tuberculosis. She visits him and pleads with him not to leave the hospital before he fully recovers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Later, she receives a call from her parents that they were homeless and had no place to go. She decides to move in with them for she still has great love for them despite the life they had offered in during her child life (Jeannette, p100). People around Jeanette discourage her about this idea saying that it was not good to give the homeless a place to stay for it makes them lazy and reluctant on finding their own home; his pisses her off but she does not show it to them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanette is forced to change the idea of attending a private school while her parents have no home. Instead, she opts to stay and take care of them but her brothers go against her decision telling her that her mother owned a whole lot of jewelry she could sell and that she has a land in Texas where her husband and her could go and live. Her husband behavior does not change and she is forced to live him. She has although kept a secret land away from her family and when Jeanette discovers this; she is really annoyed with her.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After her brothers death, Mary then goes to live in his land her in which her life does not change. She continues living miserably especially now that her communication with her children and husband had been disturbed. It is true to say that the love of the daughter towards the mother by now has changed unlike before when she was still a young girl and innocent to place judgment on her parents treatment towards them.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jeanette later marries Eric whom she has dated for five years. She moves in with him to a better house since Eric came from a rich family. She tries her best to take care of her younger sister who tends to take the wrong direction in her life. Jeanettes life has changed and she feels that her siblings should follow her steps for they have faced the same miserable lives.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Her mother cannot hold on the problems she is facing and goes ahead to borrow money from Jeanettes husband a step that annoys her to a great extent. What annoys her most is the fact that she has kept the land that she owns away from the family despite all the poverty and problems that they went through during their earlier life. As if this is not enough, she goes ahead to borrow money from Jeanettes new husband so that she could purchase the other half of the land.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Later, Jeanette visits her father who tells her that she is suffering from a disease that he contracted while fighting with a Nigerian who happened to be a drug dealer. He later suffers from a hurt attach and is placed in a machine that supports his life. He spends his last moments with Jeanette who holds his arm recalling of how he had told them that he would prefer his body placed on a mountain when he dies- he later dies after an hour and the machine turned off. Jeanette grieves her fathers death and in one year, she lives her husband as she saw him as not the right man for her. Work cited Jeannette Walls. The Glass Castle: A Memoir. Scribner, 2006: 45-250

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Development of Behavioral Psychology Essay -- science, J.R. Angell

The human mind and the way humans behave have been primary topics of study amongst historians for many years. Studies have been conducted in different professional areas to gain knowledge and understanding of humans, in an attempt to control behavior. The study of human behavior is known as behavioral psychology or behaviorism. The goal of early behaviorists and functionalists was to bring about a more reliable psychology. The behaviorists believed they would achieve this goal by excluding introspection and focus on the study of behaviorism. This evolution was achieved with help from the zeitgeist, behaviorist, and organizational psychology. This paper will discuss J.R. Angell and his prediction of the shift in psychology from introspection to behaviorism, the persons and idea’s helped to carry out the shift, how the zeitgeist supported the shift, and how the development of industrial psychology played its part in the shift. On what did Angell base his opinion? J. R. Angell was a psychologist and educator, who studied under John Dewey and William James. Angell worked as a psychology instructor at the University of Minnesota. It was at this university that Angell formed a psychology department in 1905 (Schultz and Schultz, 2012, p.294). Schultz and Schultz (2008) wrote: J.R. Angell at the University of Chicago, perhaps the most progressive of the functional psychologists, predicted that American psychology was ready for greater objectivity. In 1910, he commented that it seemed possible that the term consciousness would disappear from psychology, much as the term soul had disappeared. (p. 293) Behaviorism, which contended to end structuralism without compromise, was underway when Angell made his 2008 statement. J.R. Angell is su... ...or individuals. Conclusion Psychology has grown from the founding of behaviorism. Many individuals and ideas played a big part in setting the atmosphere for behaviorism to be widely accepted. Zeitgeist of that time period had also contributed to the acceptance of behaviorism. Therefore, when Watson came on the scene, it was not difficult for his ideas to be accepted. Even organizational psychology had its role by showing one can apply techniques in every aspect to bring change. Works Cited Buckley, K. W. (1989). Mechanical Man: John Broadus Watson and the Beginnings of Behaviorism. New York: The Guilford press Goss, A. E. (1961). Early behaviorism and verbal mediating responses. American psychologist, 16(6), 285-298. Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S. E. (2012). A history of modern psychology, (10th Ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Links Between Environmental Ethics and Sciences :: Nature Society Living Papers

The Links Between Environmental Ethics and Sciences Ecologists formulate their scientific theories influenced by ethical values, and in turn, environmental ethicists value nature based on scientific theories. Darwinian evolutionary theory provides clear examples of these complex links, illustrating how these reciprocal relationships do not constitute a closed system, but are undetermined and open to the influences of two broader worlds: the sociocultural and the natural environment. On the one hand, the Darwinian conception of a common evolutionary origin and ecological connectedness has promoted a respect for all forms of life. On the other hand, the metaphors of struggle for existence and natural selection appear as problematic because they foist onto nature the Hobbesian model of a liberal state, a Malthusian model of the economy, and the productive practice of artificial selection, all of which reaffirm modern individualism and the profit motive that are at the roots of our current environmental crisis. These metaphors were includ ed in the original definitions of ecology and environmental ethics by Haeckel and Leopold respectively, and are still pervasive among both ecologists and ethicists. To suppose that these Darwinian notions, derived from a modern-liberal worldview, are a fact of nature constitutes a misleading interpretation. Such supposition represents a serious impediment to our aim of transforming our relationship with the natural world in order to overcome the environmental crisis. To achieve a radical transformation in environmental ethics, we need a new vision of nature. Ecological theories and environmental ethics are reciprocally and dynamically linked. Inquiry into this thesis can provide epistemological and ethical insights for ecologists and environmental philosophers. First, for ecologists it clarifies that environmental ethics is not purely a normative corpus that we should adopt under the pressure of an environmental crisis. Ethical conceptions participate in the genesis and evaluation of ecological theories. Second, environmental philosophers have tended to focus on how ecological sciences could inform environmental ethics. I emphasize, in turn, that it is valuable to analyze and to discuss how ethical conceptions can and do inform ecological sciences. Introduction Ecologists approach nature with the aim of understanding it. Environmental ethicists approach nature asking how we should relate to it, or live in and with it. Two disciplines: ecology looking for the is of nature, environmental ethics seeking for an ought in respect to it. How to bridge these discrete, but parallel courses? How to link the is of ecologists and the ought of eco-philosophers? I propose a circle of continuous reciprocal influences between ecological theories and ethical norms respecting nature.